This specification data sheet covers the use of galvanized steel double twisted woven wire mesh gabion baskets filled with stone and used for various applications including but not limited to retaining walls, mechanically stabilized soil retaining structures, stream bank protection, slope paving, outfall structures, weirs, drop structures, etc.
- Gabions are defined as double twisted woven wire mesh box shaped baskets of various sizes and dimensions.
- The selvedges of the gabion baskets are the thicker perimeter and edge wires to which the wire mesh is secured as to withstand sudden or gradual stress from any direction.
- Reinforcing wires are the thicker wires incorporated into the netting during fabrication.
- The diaphragms are internal wire mesh partitions which divide the gabions into cells.
- Lacing or tie wire is the wire used to assemble and join the gabion units.
- Connecting wires are the internal wires used to prevent the gabions from bulging.
- Alternative fasteners are ASTM approved wire fasteners used in lieu of lacing wire.
Double Twisted Hexagonal steel wire mesh Galvanized Gabions. Gabions shall be fabricated in such a manner that the sides, ends, lid and diaphragms can be assembled at the construction site into rectangular baskets of the sizes specified and shown in the drawings. Gabions shall be of single unit construction: the base, lid, ends, and sides shall be either woven into a single unit or edge of these members connected to the base section of the gabion in such a manner that strength an flexibility at the connecting point does not compromise the engineered structural design of the gabion. Where the length of the gabion exceeds on a one half its horizontal width, the gabion shall be divided by diaphragms of the same mesh and gauge as the body of the gabion, into cells whose length does not exceed the horizontal width. The gabion shall be furnished with the necessary diaphragms secured in proper position on the base in such a manner that no additional tying is required at this juncture.
The double twisted hexagonal wire mesh shall have deformability sufficient to permit minimum of mesh elongation equivalent to 10% of the unstretched length of the mesh test section without reducing the gauge or the tensile strength of the individual wire strands to values less than those for similar wire, one gauge smaller in diameter.
The double twisted hexagonal wire mesh is to be fabricated in such a manner as to be non raveling. This is defined as the ability to resist pulling apart at any of the twists or connections forming the mesh when a single wire strand in a section of mesh is cut or broken.
The stone fill material used for filling the gabion units shall be clean, hard stone with pieces ranging from 4-8 inches on the greatest dimensions. Stone filling shall not exceed 24 inch vertical drop above the gabion basket. All effort shall be made to ensure that the stone fill material utilized in the design of the structure match the stone fill used in constructing the gabion structure.
Assembling and placing:
- Each gabion unit shall be assembled by tying or fastening all connecting seams. The binding wire shall be tightly looped around every other mesh opening along the seams in such a manner that single and double loops are alternated. An alternative wire fastener may be used in lieu of lacing wire. The alternative wire fasteners shall be applied at approximately 4" - 6" intervals on all vertical and horizontal seams. No less than 3 fasteners per one foot on any given seam.
- A line of empty gabions, shall be placed into position according to the contract drawings. Binding wire or alternative wire fasteners shall be used to secure each unit to the adjoining one along the vertical reinforced edges and the top selvedges. An approved corner closure tool shall be used to adjoin adjacent gabions to insure a tight, neat seam and minimize gabion wired or fastened to the latter at front and back. The lid shall be secured with an approved closure tool to insure proper closure without excessive mesh deformation.
- To achieve optimum alignment and finish for retaining walls, a minimum amount of stretching may be required.
- Connecting wire shall be inserted during the filling operation as follows: The connecting wires shall be installed according to manufacturer’s instructions every 1' vertical lift of the gabion unit.
Terra Aqua Gabion Unit Standard Sizes:
Custom Jumbo Sizes Available
|Gabion Unit Size||Capacity Cubic Yards||No. Of Internal Cells|
Tolerances: All gabion dimensions shall be within a tolerance limit of plus or minus 5% of the manufacturer's stated dimensions.
Minimum Strength Requirements for Gabions
|Test Description||Galvanized/Galfan Gabions||PVC Coated Gabions|
|Tensile strength of mesh parallel to wire twist:||3500 lbs/ft||2900 lbs/ft|
|Tensile strength of mesh perpendicular to wire twist:||1800 lbs/ft||1400 lbs/ft|
|Connection to selvedges:||1400 lbs/ft||1200 lbs/ft|
|Panel to panel:||1400 lbs/ft||1200 lbs/ft|
|Punch strength of mesh:||6000 lbs/ft||5300 lbs/ft|
- diameter of mesh wire: 0.120 inches
- diameter of selvedge wire: 0.153 inches
- diameter of lacing wire: 0.091 inches
- coating of wire: finish 5 class 3 zinc coating- ASTM A-641 tested in accordance with ASTM A370-92.
- tensile of wire: soft temper in accordance with ASTM A641-92
- weight of zinc coating of wire: shall be determined by ASTM A-90
- wire diameter of 0.120 inches shall have a weight of zinc coating of: 0.85 oz/sf
- wire diameter of 0.153 inches shall have a weight of zinc coating of: 0.90 oz/sf
- wire diameter of 0.091 inches shall have a weight of zinc coating of: 0.80 oz/sf
- grade of zinc coating of wire: high grade or special high grade in accordance with ASTM B-6, Table 1
- uniformity of coating: shall be determined by ASTM A-239
- elongation: not less than 12% in accordance with ASTM A370-92.
All of the above wire diameters are subject to a tolerance limit of 0.004 in accordance with ASTM A-641.
All Terra Aqua Gabion material is manufactured according to ASTM A975-97 guidelines for Double Twisted Hexagonal Mesh Gabions.